32bit IEEE 754: Decimal ↗ Single Precision Floating Point Binary: 2 532.129 84 Convert the Number to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Representation Standard, From a Base 10 Decimal System Number

Number 2 532.129 84(10) converted and written in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation (1 bit for sign, 8 bits for exponent, 23 bits for mantissa)

1. First, convert to binary (in base 2) the integer part: 2 532.
Divide the number repeatedly by 2.

Keep track of each remainder.

We stop when we get a quotient that is equal to zero.


  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 2 532 ÷ 2 = 1 266 + 0;
  • 1 266 ÷ 2 = 633 + 0;
  • 633 ÷ 2 = 316 + 1;
  • 316 ÷ 2 = 158 + 0;
  • 158 ÷ 2 = 79 + 0;
  • 79 ÷ 2 = 39 + 1;
  • 39 ÷ 2 = 19 + 1;
  • 19 ÷ 2 = 9 + 1;
  • 9 ÷ 2 = 4 + 1;
  • 4 ÷ 2 = 2 + 0;
  • 2 ÷ 2 = 1 + 0;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

2. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above.


2 532(10) =


1001 1110 0100(2)


3. Convert to binary (base 2) the fractional part: 0.129 84.

Multiply it repeatedly by 2.


Keep track of each integer part of the results.


Stop when we get a fractional part that is equal to zero.


  • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
  • 1) 0.129 84 × 2 = 0 + 0.259 68;
  • 2) 0.259 68 × 2 = 0 + 0.519 36;
  • 3) 0.519 36 × 2 = 1 + 0.038 72;
  • 4) 0.038 72 × 2 = 0 + 0.077 44;
  • 5) 0.077 44 × 2 = 0 + 0.154 88;
  • 6) 0.154 88 × 2 = 0 + 0.309 76;
  • 7) 0.309 76 × 2 = 0 + 0.619 52;
  • 8) 0.619 52 × 2 = 1 + 0.239 04;
  • 9) 0.239 04 × 2 = 0 + 0.478 08;
  • 10) 0.478 08 × 2 = 0 + 0.956 16;
  • 11) 0.956 16 × 2 = 1 + 0.912 32;
  • 12) 0.912 32 × 2 = 1 + 0.824 64;
  • 13) 0.824 64 × 2 = 1 + 0.649 28;
  • 14) 0.649 28 × 2 = 1 + 0.298 56;
  • 15) 0.298 56 × 2 = 0 + 0.597 12;
  • 16) 0.597 12 × 2 = 1 + 0.194 24;
  • 17) 0.194 24 × 2 = 0 + 0.388 48;
  • 18) 0.388 48 × 2 = 0 + 0.776 96;
  • 19) 0.776 96 × 2 = 1 + 0.553 92;
  • 20) 0.553 92 × 2 = 1 + 0.107 84;
  • 21) 0.107 84 × 2 = 0 + 0.215 68;
  • 22) 0.215 68 × 2 = 0 + 0.431 36;
  • 23) 0.431 36 × 2 = 0 + 0.862 72;
  • 24) 0.862 72 × 2 = 1 + 0.725 44;

We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit) and at least one integer that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...)


4. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number.

Take all the integer parts of the multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:


0.129 84(10) =


0.0010 0001 0011 1101 0011 0001(2)


5. Positive number before normalization:

2 532.129 84(10) =


1001 1110 0100.0010 0001 0011 1101 0011 0001(2)

6. Normalize the binary representation of the number.

Shift the decimal mark 11 positions to the left, so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of it:


2 532.129 84(10) =


1001 1110 0100.0010 0001 0011 1101 0011 0001(2) =


1001 1110 0100.0010 0001 0011 1101 0011 0001(2) × 20 =


1.0011 1100 1000 0100 0010 0111 1010 0110 001(2) × 211


7. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign 0 (a positive number)


Exponent (unadjusted): 11


Mantissa (not normalized):
1.0011 1100 1000 0100 0010 0111 1010 0110 001


8. Adjust the exponent.

Use the 8 bit excess/bias notation:


Exponent (adjusted) =


Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 =


11 + 2(8-1) - 1 =


(11 + 127)(10) =


138(10)


9. Convert the adjusted exponent from the decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary.

Use the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2:


  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 138 ÷ 2 = 69 + 0;
  • 69 ÷ 2 = 34 + 1;
  • 34 ÷ 2 = 17 + 0;
  • 17 ÷ 2 = 8 + 1;
  • 8 ÷ 2 = 4 + 0;
  • 4 ÷ 2 = 2 + 0;
  • 2 ÷ 2 = 1 + 0;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

10. Construct the base 2 representation of the adjusted exponent.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above.


Exponent (adjusted) =


138(10) =


1000 1010(2)


11. Normalize the mantissa.

a) Remove the leading (the leftmost) bit, since it's allways 1, and the decimal point, if the case.


b) Adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits, from the right (if any of the excess bits is set on 1, we are losing precision...).


Mantissa (normalized) =


1. 001 1110 0100 0010 0001 0011 1101 0011 0001 =


001 1110 0100 0010 0001 0011


12. The three elements that make up the number's 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign (1 bit) =
0 (a positive number)


Exponent (8 bits) =
1000 1010


Mantissa (23 bits) =
001 1110 0100 0010 0001 0011


The base ten decimal number 2 532.129 84 converted and written in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:
0 - 1000 1010 - 001 1110 0100 0010 0001 0011

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How to convert decimal numbers from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

Follow the steps below to convert a base 10 decimal number to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. If the number to be converted is negative, start with its the positive version.
  • 2. First convert the integer part. Divide repeatedly by 2 the base ten positive representation of the integer number that is to be converted to binary, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero, keeping track of each remainder.
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the positive integer part of the number, by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above. Thus, the last remainder of the divisions becomes the first symbol (the leftmost) of the base two number, while the first remainder becomes the last symbol (the rightmost).
  • 4. Then convert the fractional part. Multiply the number repeatedly by 2, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero, keeping track of each integer part of the results.
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above (they should appear in the binary representation, from left to right, in the order they have been calculated).
  • 6. Normalize the binary representation of the number, by shifting the decimal point (or if you prefer, the decimal mark) "n" positions either to the left or to the right, so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of the decimal point.
  • 7. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary, by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2, as shown above:
    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1
  • 8. Normalize mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal sign if the case) and adjust its length to 23 bits, either by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...) or by adding extra '0' bits to the right.
  • 9. Sign (it takes 1 bit) is either 1 for a negative or 0 for a positive number.

Example: convert the negative number -25.347 from decimal system (base ten) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. Start with the positive version of the number:

    |-25.347| = 25.347

  • 2. First convert the integer part, 25. Divide it repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each remainder, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero:
    • division = quotient + remainder;
    • 25 ÷ 2 = 12 + 1;
    • 12 ÷ 2 = 6 + 0;
    • 6 ÷ 2 = 3 + 0;
    • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
    • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;
    • We have encountered a quotient that is ZERO => FULL STOP
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

    25(10) = 1 1001(2)

  • 4. Then convert the fractional part, 0.347. Multiply repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each integer part of the results, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero:
    • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
    • 1) 0.347 × 2 = 0 + 0.694;
    • 2) 0.694 × 2 = 1 + 0.388;
    • 3) 0.388 × 2 = 0 + 0.776;
    • 4) 0.776 × 2 = 1 + 0.552;
    • 5) 0.552 × 2 = 1 + 0.104;
    • 6) 0.104 × 2 = 0 + 0.208;
    • 7) 0.208 × 2 = 0 + 0.416;
    • 8) 0.416 × 2 = 0 + 0.832;
    • 9) 0.832 × 2 = 1 + 0.664;
    • 10) 0.664 × 2 = 1 + 0.328;
    • 11) 0.328 × 2 = 0 + 0.656;
    • 12) 0.656 × 2 = 1 + 0.312;
    • 13) 0.312 × 2 = 0 + 0.624;
    • 14) 0.624 × 2 = 1 + 0.248;
    • 15) 0.248 × 2 = 0 + 0.496;
    • 16) 0.496 × 2 = 0 + 0.992;
    • 17) 0.992 × 2 = 1 + 0.984;
    • 18) 0.984 × 2 = 1 + 0.968;
    • 19) 0.968 × 2 = 1 + 0.936;
    • 20) 0.936 × 2 = 1 + 0.872;
    • 21) 0.872 × 2 = 1 + 0.744;
    • 22) 0.744 × 2 = 1 + 0.488;
    • 23) 0.488 × 2 = 0 + 0.976;
    • 24) 0.976 × 2 = 1 + 0.952;
    • We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit = 23) and at least one integer part that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...).
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number, by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

    0.347(10) = 0.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 6. Summarizing - the positive number before normalization:

    25.347(10) = 1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 7. Normalize the binary representation of the number, shifting the decimal point 4 positions to the left so that only one non-zero digit stays to the left of the decimal point:

    25.347(10) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 20 =
    1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 24

  • 8. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

    Sign: 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (unadjusted): 4

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

  • 9. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary (base 2), by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing it by 2, as already demonstrated above:

    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 = (4 + 127)(10) = 131(10) =
    1000 0011(2)

  • 10. Normalize the mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal point) and adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...):

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

    Mantissa (normalized): 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Conclusion:

    Sign (1 bit) = 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (8 bits) = 1000 0011

    Mantissa (23 bits) = 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Number -25.347, converted from the decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point =
    1 - 1000 0011 - 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111