Convert 0.681 499 958 038 330 07 to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard, From a Base 10 Decimal Number

0.681 499 958 038 330 07(10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point (1 bit for sign, 8 bits for exponent, 23 bits for mantissa) = ?

1. First, convert to the binary (base 2) the integer part: 0.
Divide the number repeatedly by 2.

Keep track of each remainder.

We stop when we get a quotient that is equal to zero.

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 0 ÷ 2 = 0 + 0;

2. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above.

0(10) =


0(2)


3. Convert to the binary (base 2) the fractional part: 0.681 499 958 038 330 07.

Multiply it repeatedly by 2.


Keep track of each integer part of the results.


Stop when we get a fractional part that is equal to zero.


  • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
  • 1) 0.681 499 958 038 330 07 × 2 = 1 + 0.362 999 916 076 660 14;
  • 2) 0.362 999 916 076 660 14 × 2 = 0 + 0.725 999 832 153 320 28;
  • 3) 0.725 999 832 153 320 28 × 2 = 1 + 0.451 999 664 306 640 56;
  • 4) 0.451 999 664 306 640 56 × 2 = 0 + 0.903 999 328 613 281 12;
  • 5) 0.903 999 328 613 281 12 × 2 = 1 + 0.807 998 657 226 562 24;
  • 6) 0.807 998 657 226 562 24 × 2 = 1 + 0.615 997 314 453 124 48;
  • 7) 0.615 997 314 453 124 48 × 2 = 1 + 0.231 994 628 906 248 96;
  • 8) 0.231 994 628 906 248 96 × 2 = 0 + 0.463 989 257 812 497 92;
  • 9) 0.463 989 257 812 497 92 × 2 = 0 + 0.927 978 515 624 995 84;
  • 10) 0.927 978 515 624 995 84 × 2 = 1 + 0.855 957 031 249 991 68;
  • 11) 0.855 957 031 249 991 68 × 2 = 1 + 0.711 914 062 499 983 36;
  • 12) 0.711 914 062 499 983 36 × 2 = 1 + 0.423 828 124 999 966 72;
  • 13) 0.423 828 124 999 966 72 × 2 = 0 + 0.847 656 249 999 933 44;
  • 14) 0.847 656 249 999 933 44 × 2 = 1 + 0.695 312 499 999 866 88;
  • 15) 0.695 312 499 999 866 88 × 2 = 1 + 0.390 624 999 999 733 76;
  • 16) 0.390 624 999 999 733 76 × 2 = 0 + 0.781 249 999 999 467 52;
  • 17) 0.781 249 999 999 467 52 × 2 = 1 + 0.562 499 999 998 935 04;
  • 18) 0.562 499 999 998 935 04 × 2 = 1 + 0.124 999 999 997 870 08;
  • 19) 0.124 999 999 997 870 08 × 2 = 0 + 0.249 999 999 995 740 16;
  • 20) 0.249 999 999 995 740 16 × 2 = 0 + 0.499 999 999 991 480 32;
  • 21) 0.499 999 999 991 480 32 × 2 = 0 + 0.999 999 999 982 960 64;
  • 22) 0.999 999 999 982 960 64 × 2 = 1 + 0.999 999 999 965 921 28;
  • 23) 0.999 999 999 965 921 28 × 2 = 1 + 0.999 999 999 931 842 56;
  • 24) 0.999 999 999 931 842 56 × 2 = 1 + 0.999 999 999 863 685 12;

We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit) and at least one integer that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...)


4. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number.

Take all the integer parts of the multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

0.681 499 958 038 330 07(10) =


0.1010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111(2)


5. Positive number before normalization:

0.681 499 958 038 330 07(10) =


0.1010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111(2)


6. Normalize the binary representation of the number.

Shift the decimal mark 1 positions to the right so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of it:

0.681 499 958 038 330 07(10) =


0.1010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111(2) =


0.1010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111(2) × 20 =


1.0101 1100 1110 1101 1000 111(2) × 2-1


7. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign: 0 (a positive number)


Exponent (unadjusted): -1


Mantissa (not normalized):
1.0101 1100 1110 1101 1000 111


8. Adjust the exponent.

Use the 8 bit excess/bias notation:

Exponent (adjusted) =


Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 =


-1 + 2(8-1) - 1 =


(-1 + 127)(10) =


126(10)


9. Convert the adjusted exponent from the decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary.

Use the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2:

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 126 ÷ 2 = 63 + 0;
  • 63 ÷ 2 = 31 + 1;
  • 31 ÷ 2 = 15 + 1;
  • 15 ÷ 2 = 7 + 1;
  • 7 ÷ 2 = 3 + 1;
  • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

10. Construct the base 2 representation of the adjusted exponent.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

Exponent (adjusted) =


126(10) =


0111 1110(2)


11. Normalize the mantissa.

a) Remove the leading (the leftmost) bit, since it's allways 1, and the decimal point, if the case.

b) Adjust its length to 23 bits, only if necessary (not the case here).

Mantissa (normalized) =


1. 010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111 =


010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111


12. The three elements that make up the number's 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign (1 bit) =
0 (a positive number)


Exponent (8 bits) =
0111 1110


Mantissa (23 bits) =
010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111


Number 0.681 499 958 038 330 07 converted from decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:
0 - 0111 1110 - 010 1110 0111 0110 1100 0111

(32 bits IEEE 754)
  • Sign (1 bit):

    • 0

      31
  • Exponent (8 bits):

    • 0

      30
    • 1

      29
    • 1

      28
    • 1

      27
    • 1

      26
    • 1

      25
    • 1

      24
    • 0

      23
  • Mantissa (23 bits):

    • 0

      22
    • 1

      21
    • 0

      20
    • 1

      19
    • 1

      18
    • 1

      17
    • 0

      16
    • 0

      15
    • 1

      14
    • 1

      13
    • 1

      12
    • 0

      11
    • 1

      10
    • 1

      9
    • 0

      8
    • 1

      7
    • 1

      6
    • 0

      5
    • 0

      4
    • 0

      3
    • 1

      2
    • 1

      1
    • 1

      0

More operations of this kind:

0.681 499 958 038 330 06 = ? ... 0.681 499 958 038 330 08 = ?


Convert to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

A number in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard representation requires three building elements: sign (it takes 1 bit and it's either 0 for positive or 1 for negative numbers), exponent (8 bits) and mantissa (23 bits)

Latest decimal numbers converted from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 floating point binary standard representation

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All base ten decimal numbers converted to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point

How to convert decimal numbers from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

Follow the steps below to convert a base 10 decimal number to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. If the number to be converted is negative, start with its the positive version.
  • 2. First convert the integer part. Divide repeatedly by 2 the base ten positive representation of the integer number that is to be converted to binary, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero, keeping track of each remainder.
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the positive integer part of the number, by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above. Thus, the last remainder of the divisions becomes the first symbol (the leftmost) of the base two number, while the first remainder becomes the last symbol (the rightmost).
  • 4. Then convert the fractional part. Multiply the number repeatedly by 2, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero, keeping track of each integer part of the results.
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above (they should appear in the binary representation, from left to right, in the order they have been calculated).
  • 6. Normalize the binary representation of the number, by shifting the decimal point (or if you prefer, the decimal mark) "n" positions either to the left or to the right, so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of the decimal point.
  • 7. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary, by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2, as shown above:
    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1
  • 8. Normalize mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal sign if the case) and adjust its length to 23 bits, either by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...) or by adding extra '0' bits to the right.
  • 9. Sign (it takes 1 bit) is either 1 for a negative or 0 for a positive number.

Example: convert the negative number -25.347 from decimal system (base ten) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. Start with the positive version of the number:

    |-25.347| = 25.347

  • 2. First convert the integer part, 25. Divide it repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each remainder, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero:
    • division = quotient + remainder;
    • 25 ÷ 2 = 12 + 1;
    • 12 ÷ 2 = 6 + 0;
    • 6 ÷ 2 = 3 + 0;
    • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
    • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;
    • We have encountered a quotient that is ZERO => FULL STOP
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

    25(10) = 1 1001(2)

  • 4. Then convert the fractional part, 0.347. Multiply repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each integer part of the results, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero:
    • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
    • 1) 0.347 × 2 = 0 + 0.694;
    • 2) 0.694 × 2 = 1 + 0.388;
    • 3) 0.388 × 2 = 0 + 0.776;
    • 4) 0.776 × 2 = 1 + 0.552;
    • 5) 0.552 × 2 = 1 + 0.104;
    • 6) 0.104 × 2 = 0 + 0.208;
    • 7) 0.208 × 2 = 0 + 0.416;
    • 8) 0.416 × 2 = 0 + 0.832;
    • 9) 0.832 × 2 = 1 + 0.664;
    • 10) 0.664 × 2 = 1 + 0.328;
    • 11) 0.328 × 2 = 0 + 0.656;
    • 12) 0.656 × 2 = 1 + 0.312;
    • 13) 0.312 × 2 = 0 + 0.624;
    • 14) 0.624 × 2 = 1 + 0.248;
    • 15) 0.248 × 2 = 0 + 0.496;
    • 16) 0.496 × 2 = 0 + 0.992;
    • 17) 0.992 × 2 = 1 + 0.984;
    • 18) 0.984 × 2 = 1 + 0.968;
    • 19) 0.968 × 2 = 1 + 0.936;
    • 20) 0.936 × 2 = 1 + 0.872;
    • 21) 0.872 × 2 = 1 + 0.744;
    • 22) 0.744 × 2 = 1 + 0.488;
    • 23) 0.488 × 2 = 0 + 0.976;
    • 24) 0.976 × 2 = 1 + 0.952;
    • We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit = 23) and at least one integer part that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...).
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number, by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

    0.347(10) = 0.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 6. Summarizing - the positive number before normalization:

    25.347(10) = 1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 7. Normalize the binary representation of the number, shifting the decimal point 4 positions to the left so that only one non-zero digit stays to the left of the decimal point:

    25.347(10) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 20 =
    1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 24

  • 8. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

    Sign: 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (unadjusted): 4

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

  • 9. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary (base 2), by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing it by 2, as already demonstrated above:

    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 = (4 + 127)(10) = 131(10) =
    1000 0011(2)

  • 10. Normalize the mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal point) and adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...):

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

    Mantissa (normalized): 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Conclusion:

    Sign (1 bit) = 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (8 bits) = 1000 0011

    Mantissa (23 bits) = 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Number -25.347, converted from the decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point =


    1 - 1000 0011 - 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111