Convert 0.634 357 002 to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard, From a Base 10 Decimal Number

How to convert the decimal number 0.634 357 002(10)
to
32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point
(1 bit for sign, 8 bits for exponent, 23 bits for mantissa)

1. First, convert to the binary (base 2) the integer part: 0.
Divide the number repeatedly by 2.

Keep track of each remainder.

We stop when we get a quotient that is equal to zero.

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 0 ÷ 2 = 0 + 0;

2. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above.

0(10) =


0(2)


3. Convert to the binary (base 2) the fractional part: 0.634 357 002.

Multiply it repeatedly by 2.


Keep track of each integer part of the results.


Stop when we get a fractional part that is equal to zero.


  • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
  • 1) 0.634 357 002 × 2 = 1 + 0.268 714 004;
  • 2) 0.268 714 004 × 2 = 0 + 0.537 428 008;
  • 3) 0.537 428 008 × 2 = 1 + 0.074 856 016;
  • 4) 0.074 856 016 × 2 = 0 + 0.149 712 032;
  • 5) 0.149 712 032 × 2 = 0 + 0.299 424 064;
  • 6) 0.299 424 064 × 2 = 0 + 0.598 848 128;
  • 7) 0.598 848 128 × 2 = 1 + 0.197 696 256;
  • 8) 0.197 696 256 × 2 = 0 + 0.395 392 512;
  • 9) 0.395 392 512 × 2 = 0 + 0.790 785 024;
  • 10) 0.790 785 024 × 2 = 1 + 0.581 570 048;
  • 11) 0.581 570 048 × 2 = 1 + 0.163 140 096;
  • 12) 0.163 140 096 × 2 = 0 + 0.326 280 192;
  • 13) 0.326 280 192 × 2 = 0 + 0.652 560 384;
  • 14) 0.652 560 384 × 2 = 1 + 0.305 120 768;
  • 15) 0.305 120 768 × 2 = 0 + 0.610 241 536;
  • 16) 0.610 241 536 × 2 = 1 + 0.220 483 072;
  • 17) 0.220 483 072 × 2 = 0 + 0.440 966 144;
  • 18) 0.440 966 144 × 2 = 0 + 0.881 932 288;
  • 19) 0.881 932 288 × 2 = 1 + 0.763 864 576;
  • 20) 0.763 864 576 × 2 = 1 + 0.527 729 152;
  • 21) 0.527 729 152 × 2 = 1 + 0.055 458 304;
  • 22) 0.055 458 304 × 2 = 0 + 0.110 916 608;
  • 23) 0.110 916 608 × 2 = 0 + 0.221 833 216;
  • 24) 0.221 833 216 × 2 = 0 + 0.443 666 432;

We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit) and at least one integer that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...)


4. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number.

Take all the integer parts of the multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

0.634 357 002(10) =


0.1010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000(2)


5. Positive number before normalization:

0.634 357 002(10) =


0.1010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000(2)


6. Normalize the binary representation of the number.

Shift the decimal mark 1 positions to the right so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of it:

0.634 357 002(10) =


0.1010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000(2) =


0.1010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000(2) × 20 =


1.0100 0100 1100 1010 0111 000(2) × 2-1


7. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign: 0 (a positive number)


Exponent (unadjusted): -1


Mantissa (not normalized):
1.0100 0100 1100 1010 0111 000


8. Adjust the exponent.

Use the 8 bit excess/bias notation:

Exponent (adjusted) =


Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 =


-1 + 2(8-1) - 1 =


(-1 + 127)(10) =


126(10)


9. Convert the adjusted exponent from the decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary.

Use the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2:

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 126 ÷ 2 = 63 + 0;
  • 63 ÷ 2 = 31 + 1;
  • 31 ÷ 2 = 15 + 1;
  • 15 ÷ 2 = 7 + 1;
  • 7 ÷ 2 = 3 + 1;
  • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

10. Construct the base 2 representation of the adjusted exponent.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

Exponent (adjusted) =


126(10) =


0111 1110(2)


11. Normalize the mantissa.

a) Remove the leading (the leftmost) bit, since it's allways 1, and the decimal point, if the case.

b) Adjust its length to 23 bits, only if necessary (not the case here).

Mantissa (normalized) =


1. 010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000 =


010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000


12. The three elements that make up the number's 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign (1 bit) =
0 (a positive number)


Exponent (8 bits) =
0111 1110


Mantissa (23 bits) =
010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000


Conclusion:

Number 0.634 357 002 converted from decimal system (base 10)
to
32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:
0 - 0111 1110 - 010 0010 0110 0101 0011 1000

(32 bits IEEE 754)
  • Sign (1 bit):

    • 0

      31
  • Exponent (8 bits):

    • 0

      30
    • 1

      29
    • 1

      28
    • 1

      27
    • 1

      26
    • 1

      25
    • 1

      24
    • 0

      23
  • Mantissa (23 bits):

    • 0

      22
    • 1

      21
    • 0

      20
    • 0

      19
    • 0

      18
    • 1

      17
    • 0

      16
    • 0

      15
    • 1

      14
    • 1

      13
    • 0

      12
    • 0

      11
    • 1

      10
    • 0

      9
    • 1

      8
    • 0

      7
    • 0

      6
    • 1

      5
    • 1

      4
    • 1

      3
    • 0

      2
    • 0

      1
    • 0

      0

More operations of this kind:

0.634 357 001 = ? ... 0.634 357 003 = ?


Convert to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

A number in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard representation requires three building elements: sign (it takes 1 bit and it's either 0 for positive or 1 for negative numbers), exponent (8 bits) and mantissa (23 bits)

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All base ten decimal numbers converted to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point

How to convert decimal numbers from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

Follow the steps below to convert a base 10 decimal number to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. If the number to be converted is negative, start with its the positive version.
  • 2. First convert the integer part. Divide repeatedly by 2 the base ten positive representation of the integer number that is to be converted to binary, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero, keeping track of each remainder.
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the positive integer part of the number, by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above. Thus, the last remainder of the divisions becomes the first symbol (the leftmost) of the base two number, while the first remainder becomes the last symbol (the rightmost).
  • 4. Then convert the fractional part. Multiply the number repeatedly by 2, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero, keeping track of each integer part of the results.
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above (they should appear in the binary representation, from left to right, in the order they have been calculated).
  • 6. Normalize the binary representation of the number, by shifting the decimal point (or if you prefer, the decimal mark) "n" positions either to the left or to the right, so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of the decimal point.
  • 7. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary, by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2, as shown above:
    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1
  • 8. Normalize mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal sign if the case) and adjust its length to 23 bits, either by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...) or by adding extra '0' bits to the right.
  • 9. Sign (it takes 1 bit) is either 1 for a negative or 0 for a positive number.

Example: convert the negative number -25.347 from decimal system (base ten) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. Start with the positive version of the number:

    |-25.347| = 25.347

  • 2. First convert the integer part, 25. Divide it repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each remainder, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero:
    • division = quotient + remainder;
    • 25 ÷ 2 = 12 + 1;
    • 12 ÷ 2 = 6 + 0;
    • 6 ÷ 2 = 3 + 0;
    • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
    • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;
    • We have encountered a quotient that is ZERO => FULL STOP
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

    25(10) = 1 1001(2)

  • 4. Then convert the fractional part, 0.347. Multiply repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each integer part of the results, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero:
    • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
    • 1) 0.347 × 2 = 0 + 0.694;
    • 2) 0.694 × 2 = 1 + 0.388;
    • 3) 0.388 × 2 = 0 + 0.776;
    • 4) 0.776 × 2 = 1 + 0.552;
    • 5) 0.552 × 2 = 1 + 0.104;
    • 6) 0.104 × 2 = 0 + 0.208;
    • 7) 0.208 × 2 = 0 + 0.416;
    • 8) 0.416 × 2 = 0 + 0.832;
    • 9) 0.832 × 2 = 1 + 0.664;
    • 10) 0.664 × 2 = 1 + 0.328;
    • 11) 0.328 × 2 = 0 + 0.656;
    • 12) 0.656 × 2 = 1 + 0.312;
    • 13) 0.312 × 2 = 0 + 0.624;
    • 14) 0.624 × 2 = 1 + 0.248;
    • 15) 0.248 × 2 = 0 + 0.496;
    • 16) 0.496 × 2 = 0 + 0.992;
    • 17) 0.992 × 2 = 1 + 0.984;
    • 18) 0.984 × 2 = 1 + 0.968;
    • 19) 0.968 × 2 = 1 + 0.936;
    • 20) 0.936 × 2 = 1 + 0.872;
    • 21) 0.872 × 2 = 1 + 0.744;
    • 22) 0.744 × 2 = 1 + 0.488;
    • 23) 0.488 × 2 = 0 + 0.976;
    • 24) 0.976 × 2 = 1 + 0.952;
    • We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit = 23) and at least one integer part that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...).
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number, by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

    0.347(10) = 0.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 6. Summarizing - the positive number before normalization:

    25.347(10) = 1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 7. Normalize the binary representation of the number, shifting the decimal point 4 positions to the left so that only one non-zero digit stays to the left of the decimal point:

    25.347(10) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 20 =
    1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 24

  • 8. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

    Sign: 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (unadjusted): 4

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

  • 9. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary (base 2), by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing it by 2, as already demonstrated above:

    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 = (4 + 127)(10) = 131(10) =
    1000 0011(2)

  • 10. Normalize the mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal point) and adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...):

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

    Mantissa (normalized): 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Conclusion:

    Sign (1 bit) = 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (8 bits) = 1000 0011

    Mantissa (23 bits) = 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Number -25.347, converted from the decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point =


    1 - 1000 0011 - 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111