Convert -101.389 111 321 to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard, From a Base 10 Decimal Number

-101.389 111 321(10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point (1 bit for sign, 8 bits for exponent, 23 bits for mantissa) = ?

1. Start with the positive version of the number:

|-101.389 111 321| = 101.389 111 321

2. First, convert to the binary (base 2) the integer part: 101.
Divide the number repeatedly by 2.

Keep track of each remainder.

We stop when we get a quotient that is equal to zero.

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 101 ÷ 2 = 50 + 1;
  • 50 ÷ 2 = 25 + 0;
  • 25 ÷ 2 = 12 + 1;
  • 12 ÷ 2 = 6 + 0;
  • 6 ÷ 2 = 3 + 0;
  • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

3. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above.

101(10) =


110 0101(2)


4. Convert to the binary (base 2) the fractional part: 0.389 111 321.

Multiply it repeatedly by 2.


Keep track of each integer part of the results.


Stop when we get a fractional part that is equal to zero.


  • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
  • 1) 0.389 111 321 × 2 = 0 + 0.778 222 642;
  • 2) 0.778 222 642 × 2 = 1 + 0.556 445 284;
  • 3) 0.556 445 284 × 2 = 1 + 0.112 890 568;
  • 4) 0.112 890 568 × 2 = 0 + 0.225 781 136;
  • 5) 0.225 781 136 × 2 = 0 + 0.451 562 272;
  • 6) 0.451 562 272 × 2 = 0 + 0.903 124 544;
  • 7) 0.903 124 544 × 2 = 1 + 0.806 249 088;
  • 8) 0.806 249 088 × 2 = 1 + 0.612 498 176;
  • 9) 0.612 498 176 × 2 = 1 + 0.224 996 352;
  • 10) 0.224 996 352 × 2 = 0 + 0.449 992 704;
  • 11) 0.449 992 704 × 2 = 0 + 0.899 985 408;
  • 12) 0.899 985 408 × 2 = 1 + 0.799 970 816;
  • 13) 0.799 970 816 × 2 = 1 + 0.599 941 632;
  • 14) 0.599 941 632 × 2 = 1 + 0.199 883 264;
  • 15) 0.199 883 264 × 2 = 0 + 0.399 766 528;
  • 16) 0.399 766 528 × 2 = 0 + 0.799 533 056;
  • 17) 0.799 533 056 × 2 = 1 + 0.599 066 112;
  • 18) 0.599 066 112 × 2 = 1 + 0.198 132 224;
  • 19) 0.198 132 224 × 2 = 0 + 0.396 264 448;
  • 20) 0.396 264 448 × 2 = 0 + 0.792 528 896;
  • 21) 0.792 528 896 × 2 = 1 + 0.585 057 792;
  • 22) 0.585 057 792 × 2 = 1 + 0.170 115 584;
  • 23) 0.170 115 584 × 2 = 0 + 0.340 231 168;
  • 24) 0.340 231 168 × 2 = 0 + 0.680 462 336;

We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit) and at least one integer that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...)


5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number.

Take all the integer parts of the multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

0.389 111 321(10) =


0.0110 0011 1001 1100 1100 1100(2)


6. Positive number before normalization:

101.389 111 321(10) =


110 0101.0110 0011 1001 1100 1100 1100(2)


7. Normalize the binary representation of the number.

Shift the decimal mark 6 positions to the left so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of it:

101.389 111 321(10) =


110 0101.0110 0011 1001 1100 1100 1100(2) =


110 0101.0110 0011 1001 1100 1100 1100(2) × 20 =


1.1001 0101 1000 1110 0111 0011 0011 00(2) × 26


8. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign: 1 (a negative number)


Exponent (unadjusted): 6


Mantissa (not normalized):
1.1001 0101 1000 1110 0111 0011 0011 00


9. Adjust the exponent.

Use the 8 bit excess/bias notation:

Exponent (adjusted) =


Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 =


6 + 2(8-1) - 1 =


(6 + 127)(10) =


133(10)


10. Convert the adjusted exponent from the decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary.

Use the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2:

  • division = quotient + remainder;
  • 133 ÷ 2 = 66 + 1;
  • 66 ÷ 2 = 33 + 0;
  • 33 ÷ 2 = 16 + 1;
  • 16 ÷ 2 = 8 + 0;
  • 8 ÷ 2 = 4 + 0;
  • 4 ÷ 2 = 2 + 0;
  • 2 ÷ 2 = 1 + 0;
  • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;

11. Construct the base 2 representation of the adjusted exponent.

Take all the remainders starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

Exponent (adjusted) =


133(10) =


1000 0101(2)


12. Normalize the mantissa.

a) Remove the leading (the leftmost) bit, since it's allways 1, and the decimal point, if the case.

b) Adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits, from the right (if any of the excess bits is set on 1, we are losing precision...).

Mantissa (normalized) =


1. 100 1010 1100 0111 0011 1001 100 1100 =


100 1010 1100 0111 0011 1001


13. The three elements that make up the number's 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point representation:

Sign (1 bit) =
1 (a negative number)


Exponent (8 bits) =
1000 0101


Mantissa (23 bits) =
100 1010 1100 0111 0011 1001


Number -101.389 111 321 converted from decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:
1 - 1000 0101 - 100 1010 1100 0111 0011 1001

(32 bits IEEE 754)
  • Sign (1 bit):

    • 1

      31
  • Exponent (8 bits):

    • 1

      30
    • 0

      29
    • 0

      28
    • 0

      27
    • 0

      26
    • 1

      25
    • 0

      24
    • 1

      23
  • Mantissa (23 bits):

    • 1

      22
    • 0

      21
    • 0

      20
    • 1

      19
    • 0

      18
    • 1

      17
    • 0

      16
    • 1

      15
    • 1

      14
    • 0

      13
    • 0

      12
    • 0

      11
    • 1

      10
    • 1

      9
    • 1

      8
    • 0

      7
    • 0

      6
    • 1

      5
    • 1

      4
    • 1

      3
    • 0

      2
    • 0

      1
    • 1

      0

More operations of this kind:

-101.389 111 322 = ? ... -101.389 111 32 = ?


Convert to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

A number in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard representation requires three building elements: sign (it takes 1 bit and it's either 0 for positive or 1 for negative numbers), exponent (8 bits) and mantissa (23 bits)

Latest decimal numbers converted from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 floating point binary standard representation

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All base ten decimal numbers converted to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point

How to convert decimal numbers from base ten to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard

Follow the steps below to convert a base 10 decimal number to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. If the number to be converted is negative, start with its the positive version.
  • 2. First convert the integer part. Divide repeatedly by 2 the base ten positive representation of the integer number that is to be converted to binary, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero, keeping track of each remainder.
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the positive integer part of the number, by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above. Thus, the last remainder of the divisions becomes the first symbol (the leftmost) of the base two number, while the first remainder becomes the last symbol (the rightmost).
  • 4. Then convert the fractional part. Multiply the number repeatedly by 2, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero, keeping track of each integer part of the results.
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above (they should appear in the binary representation, from left to right, in the order they have been calculated).
  • 6. Normalize the binary representation of the number, by shifting the decimal point (or if you prefer, the decimal mark) "n" positions either to the left or to the right, so that only one non zero digit remains to the left of the decimal point.
  • 7. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary, by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing by 2, as shown above:
    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1
  • 8. Normalize mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal sign if the case) and adjust its length to 23 bits, either by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...) or by adding extra '0' bits to the right.
  • 9. Sign (it takes 1 bit) is either 1 for a negative or 0 for a positive number.

Example: convert the negative number -25.347 from decimal system (base ten) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

  • 1. Start with the positive version of the number:

    |-25.347| = 25.347

  • 2. First convert the integer part, 25. Divide it repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each remainder, until we get a quotient that is equal to zero:
    • division = quotient + remainder;
    • 25 ÷ 2 = 12 + 1;
    • 12 ÷ 2 = 6 + 0;
    • 6 ÷ 2 = 3 + 0;
    • 3 ÷ 2 = 1 + 1;
    • 1 ÷ 2 = 0 + 1;
    • We have encountered a quotient that is ZERO => FULL STOP
  • 3. Construct the base 2 representation of the integer part of the number by taking all the remainders of the previous dividing operations, starting from the bottom of the list constructed above:

    25(10) = 1 1001(2)

  • 4. Then convert the fractional part, 0.347. Multiply repeatedly by 2, keeping track of each integer part of the results, until we get a fractional part that is equal to zero:
    • #) multiplying = integer + fractional part;
    • 1) 0.347 × 2 = 0 + 0.694;
    • 2) 0.694 × 2 = 1 + 0.388;
    • 3) 0.388 × 2 = 0 + 0.776;
    • 4) 0.776 × 2 = 1 + 0.552;
    • 5) 0.552 × 2 = 1 + 0.104;
    • 6) 0.104 × 2 = 0 + 0.208;
    • 7) 0.208 × 2 = 0 + 0.416;
    • 8) 0.416 × 2 = 0 + 0.832;
    • 9) 0.832 × 2 = 1 + 0.664;
    • 10) 0.664 × 2 = 1 + 0.328;
    • 11) 0.328 × 2 = 0 + 0.656;
    • 12) 0.656 × 2 = 1 + 0.312;
    • 13) 0.312 × 2 = 0 + 0.624;
    • 14) 0.624 × 2 = 1 + 0.248;
    • 15) 0.248 × 2 = 0 + 0.496;
    • 16) 0.496 × 2 = 0 + 0.992;
    • 17) 0.992 × 2 = 1 + 0.984;
    • 18) 0.984 × 2 = 1 + 0.968;
    • 19) 0.968 × 2 = 1 + 0.936;
    • 20) 0.936 × 2 = 1 + 0.872;
    • 21) 0.872 × 2 = 1 + 0.744;
    • 22) 0.744 × 2 = 1 + 0.488;
    • 23) 0.488 × 2 = 0 + 0.976;
    • 24) 0.976 × 2 = 1 + 0.952;
    • We didn't get any fractional part that was equal to zero. But we had enough iterations (over Mantissa limit = 23) and at least one integer part that was different from zero => FULL STOP (losing precision...).
  • 5. Construct the base 2 representation of the fractional part of the number, by taking all the integer parts of the previous multiplying operations, starting from the top of the constructed list above:

    0.347(10) = 0.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 6. Summarizing - the positive number before normalization:

    25.347(10) = 1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2)

  • 7. Normalize the binary representation of the number, shifting the decimal point 4 positions to the left so that only one non-zero digit stays to the left of the decimal point:

    25.347(10) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) =
    1 1001.0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 20 =
    1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101(2) × 24

  • 8. Up to this moment, there are the following elements that would feed into the 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point:

    Sign: 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (unadjusted): 4

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

  • 9. Adjust the exponent in 8 bit excess/bias notation and then convert it from decimal (base 10) to 8 bit binary (base 2), by using the same technique of repeatedly dividing it by 2, as already demonstrated above:

    Exponent (adjusted) = Exponent (unadjusted) + 2(8-1) - 1 = (4 + 127)(10) = 131(10) =
    1000 0011(2)

  • 10. Normalize the mantissa, remove the leading (leftmost) bit, since it's allways '1' (and the decimal point) and adjust its length to 23 bits, by removing the excess bits from the right (losing precision...):

    Mantissa (not-normalized): 1.1001 0101 1000 1101 0100 1111 1101

    Mantissa (normalized): 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Conclusion:

    Sign (1 bit) = 1 (a negative number)

    Exponent (8 bits) = 1000 0011

    Mantissa (23 bits) = 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111

  • Number -25.347, converted from the decimal system (base 10) to 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point =


    1 - 1000 0011 - 100 1010 1100 0110 1010 0111